Bi-weekly series featuring faculty members in the College of Arts and Sciences whose research focuses on identifying racism, how to become an effective antiracist, and other topics related to allyship and antiracism.
Police Power, Racial Terror, and the Violence of Reform
Tyler Wall, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology
Ongoing protests against racist police violence amid a global pandemic are leading to important debates about the role and function of the police in our society. Many protestors are calling for policy changes that demand the defunding of the police in favor of more robust social programs and wider access to public goods. In his presentation, Tyler Wall, assistant professor of sociology, places police power within a wider context of historical cycles of violence and reform and the current legitimacy crisis of US policing. He examines how police power is inseparable from the structures that govern and reproduce racial capitalist society. What emerges from this discussion is an argument about how typical liberal reforms are not only destined to fail but further entrench and normalize racist state violence. Reform, then, becomes the “pie in the sky” while abolition and its related demand to defund police becomes the most logical, practical, and necessary response to the contemporary police crisis.
Embattled Names, Racialized Memories, and Wounded Places
As of late we have seen growing calls from activists and communities to remove the names of racist historical figures from the names of streets, parks, schools, university campus buildings and other spaces. Often lost on many members of the public, especially opponents to these changes, is the larger historical relationship between these valorized names and the physical, structural, and symbolic violence of white supremacy—realized both in the past and the present. To put these ongoing struggles in context, Alderman will discuss the power of commemorative place names and the complex role they play in the memory-work of antiracism and the politics of planning more socially just landscapes. Ferguson, a guest scholar-activist, will describe her own efforts to rename a Stonewall Jackson Middle School and the results of her dissertation, which documented the harmful, wounding effects of white supremacist and Confederate names on students and teachers of color.
The Life and Legacy of John Lewis
Shayla Nunnally, Professor of Political Science and Chair of Africana Studies Program
Congressman John Lewis lived his life dedicated to serving others in the larger interest of the public good and in the promotion of civil rights. As a young activist, he was a member of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and represented some of the sentiments of Black youth, who felt that African Americans’ civil rights could not be achieved gradually, as they perceived to be the course of action on behalf of more senior civil rights leaders. Rather, through direct action, he and other African American youth called attention to the immediate need for liberty, justice, and equality for all, regardless of race.
Getting into “good trouble,” as he called it, manifested into peaceful, civil disobedience to protest the inequality of Jim Crow laws in the American South. Through his and others’ protests in the violent space where they attempted to cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, America saw the depths of white Southerners’ opposition to African Americans’ quest for equality. Seeing this violence also prompted President Lyndon B. Johnson to encourage the US Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
With an early-lifetime history of active leadership and involvement in the Civil Rights Movement, once elected to public office, Rep. John Lewis continued a legacy of promoting equality for all, through pressing formal political institutions to function according to democratic principles. Accounting for Lewis’ activism, Professor Nunnally will relate and discuss contemporary forms of activism to the current struggle for democratic inclusion on behalf of black Americans and others.
Race, Family Structure, and Poverty: Towards a Racial Stratification Approach
Deadric Williams, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology
Family structure remains a dominant explanation for understanding racial inequality in poverty. Yet, empirical studies show family structure fail to fully account for this association, which is due largely to the assumptions undergirding this line of reasoning. Conventional racial inequality in poverty research follows epistemologies that obscure racial domination and oppression by (a) highlighting the racial gap in poverty without conceptualizing and historicizing the social construction of race, (b) theorizing family structure as race-neutral to explain racial inequality, and (c) employing data analyses in ways that position White Americans as the standard against which people of color are measured.
Professor Deadric Williams will present racial stratification as an alternative perspective to emphasize the social construction of race and how race contributes to the unequal distribution of resources. To illustrate the link between racial stratification and poverty, he will present a conceptual model that begins with connecting racism (as structure and ideology) to the creation of racialized status (superordinate vs. subordinate) groups.
Williams will posit the maintenance of inequality among racialized status groups requires three broad mechanisms:
- The racialized state (politics/policies)
- Racial ideologies (nonracial explanations for why racial inequality exist)
- Whiteness as property (spatial inequality)
He will conclude that these mechanisms not only reinforce the racial order but also maintain the disproportionate amount of Black and Hispanic families in poverty. Williams will urge scholars to theorize racial stratification to understand how, and in what ways, the manifestation of racism maintains racial inequality in poverty.
From White Tears to Social Transformation: Antiracism Beyond Guilt
The Uprisings of 2020 have brought many issues to the forefront of the national conversation on race. The emotions of White antiracism—guilt, shame, despair, anger—are particularly contentious concepts in racial justice movements insomuch as White people’s feelings may advance or undermine efforts to dismantle White supremacy.
Drawing on interdisciplinary perspectives from critical, multicultural psychology and sociology, Professors Patrick Grzanka and Kirsten Gonzalez will discuss their work on White racial emotions and allyship to underscore the importance of emotions in antiracist work. Rather than center White people’s feelings and subjectivities, they suggest that White guilt and associated forms of affect have both limits and possibilities for promoting social transformation.
If White people are to contribute productively and non-harmfully to racial justice movements, then careful examination of the causes and consequences of White racial emotions is essential to ensure that White people move beyond tears and guilt and toward the ongoing practice of racial consciousness and social action.
Why, When, and How Implicit Bias Matters
Michael Olson, Professor, Department of Psychology
Implicit bias has lost conceptual clarity as it has become a buzz term in today’s discourse. The relevance of implicit bias to current events has also been called into question in the context of increased awareness of more blatant forms of racism. In his presentation, Olson will clarify and situate the concept of implicit bias within a dual-process social cognitive framework. In doing so, he will discuss how it forms and changes, affects perceptions, judgments, and behavior (including intentional acts of discrimination), and how its impacts can be mitigated in interpersonal and organizational contexts.
Scientific Racism: Historical Roots and Contemporary Manifestations
Nora Berenstain, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy
Science has long colluded with white supremacy and colonialism to produce allegedly “evidence-based” justifications for racial oppression. Professor Nora Berenstain will trace historical lineages of scientific racism from early forms, such as craniometry and anthropometry, to more contemporary manifestation, such as genetic accounts of biological racial differences.
Whereas early race science was used to justify slavery as natural and even moral, contemporary race science works to mask the effects of racism on people of color by construing racial health inequalities as inevitable disparities rooted in biology. Contrary to popular belief, these theories have often been produced within mainstream institutions of higher education, rather than at the fringes of society. Indeed, racist theories have often been at the center of the discipline of philosophy rather than at its margins.
As a philosopher, Berenstain will address her discipline’s role in the production of theories that justify and maintain social and political structures of colonial white supremacy. Berenstain will introduce the framework of “active ignorance” as a way to understand the strategies that scientists and philosophers use to sow confusion around the fraught relationship between science and race.
To Vote or Not to Vote? That is the Question
Christopher Ojeda, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science
Richard Pacelle, Professor and Head, Department of Political Science
The images are stunning. Middle aged women and men emerge, often in tears, from a voting booth in a country that has just changed its name or has just thrown off the yoke of authoritarianism. They wear a badge of honor, a blue paint mark on their finger. They vow not to wash it off. Contrast that with the United States where people have the right to vote but often fail to exercise it. We take the right and the responsibility for granted.
And yet, Americans are engrossed with voting processes. More than half the amendments to the Constitution since the Bill of Rights (10 of 17) have involved voting and/or elections. Today, voting is a central political issue as it probably has not been since the passage of the Voting Rights Act. Both Democrats and Republicans accuse each other of compromising the integrity of elections by trying to manipulate the voting process.
What is going on? What is voter suppression and what can you do about it? What is the future of voting? And, most importantly, why should you vote in this election?
Doing the Work to Be Good Relatives
Lisa King, Associate Professor
Department of English
The term antiracist incorporates the belief that racism is everyone’s problem and each person has a role to play in stopping it. The term, however, cannot fully encompass Indigenous peoples’ experiences or fully dismantle colonial systems without an active engagement with decolonial perspectives. In her presentation, Professor King will bring together the concepts of antiracist work and decolonial work to show how the two can be complementary, but how we need them both to deal with the ideological and cultural frames we live in, as well as the histories we inherit.
Jessi Grieser, Assistant Professor, Department of English
One way of being actively anti-racist in the classroom is being aware of language variation and appreciative of linguistic diversity. In her presentation, Jessi Grieser, assistant professor of English, will explore the workings of standard language ideology and the principle of linguistic subordination. She will explain how we can move away from “correct English” in our assessment strategies and toward inclusive strategies that respect language variation.
Registration is required in advance. Register here and after registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing the Zoom link and password.